Topological Sorting (Topological Sorting)

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Given a graph or network, find a topological sorting of the graph. A list in topological order has a special property. Simply expressed: proceeding from element to element along any path in the network, one passes through the list in one direction only. Stated another way, a list in topological order is such that no element appears in it until after all elements appearing on all paths leading to the particular element have been listed.


$V$: number of vertices

$E$: number of edges

Table of Algorithms

Name Year Time Space Approximation Factor Model Reference
Kahn's algorithm 1962 $O(V+E)$ $O(V)$ Exact Deterministic Time
Tarjan's DFS based algorithm 1976 $O(V+E)$ $O(V)$? Exact Deterministic Time
Dekel; Nassimi & Sahni Parallel Implementation 1981 $O(\log^{2} V)$ $O(V^{2})$?? Exact Parallel Time

Time Complexity Graph

Topological Sorting - Time.png