Dining Philosophers Problem (Deadlock Avoidance)

From Algorithm Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search


There are $n$ philosophers numbered 0 through $n-1$, seated around a circle table. Their only problem--besides philosophy--is that the dish served is a very difficult kind of spaghetti, that has to be eaten with two forks. There are two forks next to each plate, so that presents no difficulty: as a consequence, however, no two neighbors may be eating simultaneously. The philosophers' lives consist of an alternation between eating and thinking. The goal is to devise a strategy such that no philosopher is stuck thinking forever and each philosopher may eat at reasonable intervals.

Related Problems

Generalizations: Deadlock Avoidance


$n$: number of philosophers

Table of Algorithms

Name Year Time Space Approximation Factor Model Reference
Resource hierarchy solution 1965 $O({2}^n)$ $O(n)$ Exact Deterministic Time
Arbitrator solution 1965 $O({2}^n)$ $O({1})$ Exact Deterministic Time